Vienna is the capital city of Austria, at the same time a statutory city, and since 1 January 1922 one of its Länder, completely surrounded by the territory of the Land of Lower Austria.
Due to its favorable location and favorable climate, the Vienna Basin is inhabited continuously since the Early Stone Age. The name was given a place after the Celtic settlement of Vedunia, which means "forest brook".
Around the turn of the year, the territory was captured by the Romans, who built a military camp with an adjacent town on the site of today's city center. It was named Vindobon and its task was to defend the northern border of the empire against the Germanic tribes. In 180 during the campaign against Markomans, Emperor Marcus Aurelius died here. The Romans left the city in the 5th century, but the settlement never ceased completely and in the Middle Ages it was restored to the Roman form on the Roman bases.
In 1155, Margrave Henry II made it. Jasomirgott Vienna, the capital of Austria, based on Privilegia minus (1156) promoted to the Duchy. Upon his return from the crusade, the English King Richard I. the Lion Heart was captured in the city. The ransom for its release became an incentive for the further development of the city as an important business center in the Danube region. During the reign of the first Habsburgs, Vienna, as their hometown, became the center of the Holy Roman Empire for a short time. After the arrival of the Luxembourg on the imperial throne, it took over this role as the capital city of the Czech Kingdom of Prague, in the time of the Hussite Revolution and the Hussite wars again, until the reign of Rudolf II. lost.
In 1365, the University of Vienna was founded, the third oldest university north of the Alps. In 1438 Vienna for a long time - with a break for Rudolf II. - once again became the emperor's residential town. Not long afterwards the Vienna Archdiocese (1469) was established. In the twenties of the 16th century, Vienna became the center of the Danubian constitution, which included the Austrian, Czech and Hungarian lands, and with short breaks remained until 1918. Between 1529 and 1683, the Turkish troops were reflected in Vienna, which had progressed well over that time the whole Balkans.
The city was until 1804 the center of one of the European superpowers and residences of the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and his court. This year, and definitively in 1806, the role of Vienna in the will of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte after his victories in the first phase of the Napoleonic Wars was limited to the capital of the newly created Austrian Empire. In 1814, a congress was convened in Vienna to address the post-war European post-Napoleonic fall.
The second half of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century were marked by the turbulent development of Vienna. On the site of the walls there was a large circular class lined with public buildings - Ringstrasse, a substantial part of the city was rebuilt and the former suburb connected with the inner city. Around the year 1910 the population exceeded two million, so Vienna was the fourth largest city in the world. It was also an important center of artistic life.
Vienna is characterized by a rich musical tradition, whose peak dates back to the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, when Wolfgang Amadeus Mazart, Joseph Haydn and Ludwig van Beethoven formed the city. Later Franz Schubert, Franz Liszt, Johannes Brahms, Anton Bruckner and Gustav Mahler became famous, as well as members of the New Vienna School around Arnold Schonberg in the early 20th century. For the best interpretation of Mozart's works, the Wiener Flotenuhr Award is awarded every two years to the Vienna Academy.