Karlovy Vary is a regional and statutory town in western Bohemia, in the Karlovy Vary Region, 110 km west of Prague at the confluence of Ohře and Teplé. It has about 49,000 inhabitants. The area of the cadastre is 59.10 km².
The place where the center of Karlovy Vary was established remained for a long time out of the population's interest. The steep slopes and inappropriate climatic conditions at the thermal springs did not provide suitable conditions for growing crops that were key to the settlement. The first settlement was located in today's peripheral parts of the city.
The exact date of establishment of the city is unknown. Permanent settlement around the wing originated in the mid-14th century. In 1370 the city was granted by Charles IV. the privilege of the royal city. The legend of the founding of Karlovy Vary, which was recorded by Dr. Fabian Sommer in 1571, says that the hunting dog began to play a wildlife during the expedition in the woods, dropping into the pool of a violent jet of hot water. The dog moon called on the other members of the expedition, who then tasted hot water. Charles IV was also informed of the finding, who went to the place of the spring. Together with the physicians present, he noted that this hot water has therapeutic effects, which he subsequently tried and received improvement. In the place of the alleged spring, he founded a spa called the Hot Spa at Loket.
At first, the city had only a few inhabitants, whose most important task was to care for the springs. Karlovy Vary initially developed at a slow pace. The Hussite Wars did not interfere with the city because it was not considered as strategically significant. From gradually developing spa, the city slowly began to grow. But the growth was hampered by a few misfortunes that the city had hit. In 1582, a flood drove the city and in 1609 a devastating fire that destroyed 99 houses out of 102. The subsequent rapid growth was interrupted by the Thirty Years' War, which reduced the number of inhabitants and also the spa guests.
The end of the 17th century begins to regain growth in the city. Karlovy Vary begins to visit important European personalities. The city has begun to grow with new buildings (such as the theater or the Saxon and Czech Hall, which became the basis for Grandhotel Pupp and others). In 1759, the town was again damaged by flames. However, the city was already recovering from the fire, thanks to its reputation. The Napoleonic Wars served their way in the city. Due to their sufficient distance from the battlefields, visitors of the famous spa towns of Western Europe have been dragging their way. Architectural transformation to Art Nouveau at the end of the 19th century is largely due to Viennese architects Ferdinand Fellner and Hemann Helmer, who designed 20 major buildings in the city. In the years 1870-1871 the city was connected with Cheb and Prague through a railway, which was later followed by regional connections. The spring colonnade in 1915. In the background is the church of St. Mary Magdalene
The development of the city was jeopardized by the First World War, after which it had not been able to build on such an extensive growth. The city became the center of major events with the rise of Nazism. The local bookseller K. H. Frank became the leader of the Sudeten German Democratic Party in the Carlsbad, later he was the second most powerful man in the party. On April 24, 1938, Konrad Henlein in the city introduced the so-called 8 Carlsbad's demands for the breakup of Czechoslovakia. In October of that year, Karlovy Vary became part of the Third Reich. At the end of the Second World War, the city (especially the local part of the Fisherman) was affected by bombing. The end of the war was accompanied by the forced expulsion of the German population. During the era of socialism, several important buildings were built in the center of the city, such as the Thermal Spring, the Thermal Hotel, etc. The post-1989 period is characterized by the entrance of the Russian capital, which also has an impact on the form of the city (eg by disturbing the city's historical character). According to research conducted by Russian activist Mikhail Maglov, which deals with property affairs through an analysis of the local land registry, "up to half" of local property is owned by citizens of the Russian Federation and other countries of the former Soviet Union.